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How Is Butter Made?

Cream is used to make fresh butter.
A mixer is used at high speed to make butter at home.
Butter.
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  • Written By: Mary McMahon
  • Edited By: Bronwyn Harris
  • Last Modified Date: 22 March 2014
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Butter is made by beating cream, the thickest, fattiest part of milk. As it is beaten, the fat globules begin to stick together, forcing the cream to form a solid mass of milkfat, also known as butter. Although many people are taught to refrain from consuming fatty products, pure butter without additives contains healthy fatty acids, which benefit cholesterol levels and general health. While an excess can be harmful, the food is not inherently bad for you.

There are two types of butter: traditionally made, which uses soured milk, and fresh. Traditional forms are sometimes labeled as “European Butter” in stores, and you may have noticed that it has a rich, slightly sour, intense flavor. Butter made with fresh cream is much more mild. It also comes in salted and unsalted formats. Traditionally, butter was heavily salted to keep it from going rancid. It is more lightly salted today that it was historically, so that the salty flavor does not dominate. Unsalted is also available for certain cooking applications.

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When butter is made traditionally in a dairy, vats of milk are set out after milking in a cool place so that the cream can rise to the top. The top of the milk is skimmed, and the cream is collected in a large container for up to a week, so that a large batch can be made. The cream is also allowed to sour slightly, forming acids which help to break down the fat in the cream. Next, the cream is poured into a churn to be beaten. In an upright churn, a paddle is pounded back and forth. Other churns use a rotating motion. Either way, constant speed has to be kept up as the butter forms, leaving watery buttermilk behind.

The buttermilk is poured off, and the butter is worked with cold water to remove the last of the buttermilk. Next, it is salted and packaged for sale. Modern butters made in this style are usually made with milk which has been cultured with yogurt, so that the final product has a dependably tangy flavor. This also reduces the risk of food borne illness which is increased by leaving dairy products out at room temperature to sour. However, many dairies choose not to culture their cream, and instead simply whip fresh cream at a high speed.

Making butter at home is easy to do, and it can be a fun activity. Start with high quality fresh cream that has no additives. Some consumers choose raw cream which has not been pasteurized, as they feel it performs better. Put the cream into a mixer and run it at high speed until the buttermilk separates out. Pour the milk off and work the butter with cold water to wash it, before adding salt or flavorings of your choice.

You can also make butter by shaking cream in a jar, if you have the patience; it can take up to an hour, and you need to be conscientious about keeping the cream cold. The buttermilk can be used in cooking or drunk plain, and it has an interesting flavor which many people enjoy. For a more soured flavor, add cultured buttermilk from the store to the cream and allow it to sit at room temperature overnight before beating.

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Discuss this Article

anon159173
Post 9

@musicshaman: British, Irish and 'normal' butters are made with cream and have a very mild flavor. Continental or European butters are made with the addition of soured cream or yogurt to give a much more intense flavor.

CopperPipe
Post 6

@musicshaman -- Ultimately, you're right to say that butter is butter -- I mean, it all sits in the butter boat the same way.

However, there are differences in the way that butter tastes in different places because of the different plants that grow in each area. Since the cows eat the plants, this impacts the way their milk tastes, and therefore the way butter made from that milk tastes.

Sometimes butters from different areas are actually flavored as well. For instance, many French butters that I've tried are flavored with herbs or spices just to make them taste a little more interesting.

So, although you're right in that butter is essentially the same thing wherever you go, if you look a little deeper, there are definite regional differences.

musicshaman
Post 5

So here's a question -- what exactly is the difference between plain butter and fancy butters like French butter?

I've always wondered that, because it seems to me like butter is butter is butter, you know what I mean, so I've never understood why some people pay gobs of money just to get one from another area.

Can anyone explain this to me?

TunaLine
Post 4

When I was in grade school, I went through this huge pioneer phase -- I was totally fascinated with handicrafts, sewing, making cheese and butter etc, so when I had to do a school project, I decided it would be a good idea to make some butter.

Surprisingly, it's actually very easy to make -- you can actually make butter in a mason jar. All you have to do is take about a pint of heavy cream and pour it into a mason jar. The size doesn't really matter as long as you've got enough room to shake the cream around.

Then, add in a little bit of salt and just a drop or two of vanilla extract, and close the lid very, very tightly. Then you start shaking. Now, this process can feel like it takes forever, so keep at it.

You'll know you're getting somewhere when you start to get a product that looks like whipped cream; that means you're about halfway there. Then keep shaking and shaking until you start to see yellow solids separate out from the rest of the liquid.

Eventually, the solids will stop forming and you'll be left with a big mound of butter surrounded by by buttermilk. Pour off the buttermilk (you can drink it, if you want), and then put your butter into a butter dish (I always use a butter crock, I feel like it keeps better), and let it chill for a while before you use it.

That's all you have to do -- it's really kind of fun, and it's nice to have something in your butter keeper that you made yourself, just like I did in front of my classmates.

spasiba
Post 1

Butter will hold well in the refrigerator for about a month. It is good to keep it covered so it does not pick up flavors from other foods. In the freezer, butter can be kept up to four month.

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