@highlighter- Thermoelectric modules are also used in aerospace and aeronautics. When a craft is exposed to solar radiation outside of the earth’s atmosphere, thermoelectric coolers are used to dissipate heat form the hot side of the craft to the cold side of the craft (the side facing away from the sun). This prevents components from being stressed by running in hot and cold environments, essentially stabilizing the craft's temperature in space.
Thermoelectric devices are also used in molecular biology to rapidly heat and cool the reaction mixture in the synthesis of DNA. Other scientific applications include using Peltier coolers to stabilize wavelengths in laser beams. It sounds like science fiction, but the exact wavelength of a laser is dependent on the exact temperature of the light source.