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What Is the Wailing Wall?

Man praying at the wailing wall. Notice the small pieces of paper pressed into the cracks between the stones. These slips of paper typically contain prayers and are left by worshipers.
Morning prayers at the Western Wall in Jerusalem.
Tunnel to the left of the Wailing Wall.
Jerusalem, Israel.
John Paul II was the first pope to pray at the Wailing Wall.
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  • Originally Written By: Tricia Ellis-Christensen
  • Revised By: A. Joseph
  • Edited By: O. Wallace
  • Last Modified Date: 04 December 2014
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The Wailing Wall or Western Wall is in Jerusalem and is believed by many people to be the remains of one wall of a great Jewish temple or the wall surrounding the temple's courtyard. It is a stone wall that extends about 62 feet (18.9 m) above the ground. The wall is considered to be a sacred site by Jews, and thousands of people make pilgrimages there each year. It also is a source of much dispute regarding its true history as well as a source of contention among Jews and Muslims, who consider it to be part of an ancient mosque or the wall to which the seventh-century Islamic prophet Muhammad tied his winged steed during his Night Journey.

Temple Wall

Jews and many other people consider the wall to have been part of a Jewish temple, also called the Second Temple, which stood for hundreds of years. King Herod ordered a renovation and expansion of the temple in about 19 B.C., and the work was not finished until about 50 years later. This temple was destroyed by Romans in about 70 A.D., only a few years after its completion. The Wailing Wall is widely believed to be the only part still standing.

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After the temple was destroyed, many Jews began going to the wall to mourn the temple's destruction and to pray. The name Wailing Wall was ascribed to the site by non-Jews who saw the Jews mourning there. Jews actually refer to the wall as the Western Wall, or Kotel HaMaaravi in Hebrew.

Al-Buraq Wall

Many Muslims believe that the wall has no relation to ancient Judaism. They refer to the wall as the Al-Buraq Wall, a reference to Al-Buraq, the winged steed that Muhammad is said to have ridden. Muslims believe that Muhammad tied Al-Buraq to the wall while he ascended to heaven to speak with God. Many Muslims also believe that the wall was part of the ancient Al-Aqsa Mosque, and that Jews did not begin praying at the wall until at least the 16th century, if not much later.

Control of the Wall

During the more than 3,500 years of its history, Jerusalem has been attacked and captured dozens of times. Control of the city — and the Wailing Wall — continued to be a point of contention in the 20th and early 21st centuries. Arab leaders controlled the wall during the first part of the 20th century, but with the establishment of Israel, Jews gained control of the wall in 1967. There is still much underlying bitterness regarding this place, however, which has contributed to the poor relationships between Arabic countries and Israel.

Although enmity has remained between Jews and Muslims, the Wailing Wall has been the site of reconciliation between Jews and Catholics. In 2000, Pope John Paul II became the first pope to pray at the wall. He also apologized for centuries of Catholic persecution of Jews, referring to them as the Catholics' "elder brothers."

Praying at the Wall

Jews from all countries, and as well as tourists of other religious backgrounds, go to pray at the wall, where many people believe that one immediately has the "ear of God." People who cannot pray at the wall can send in prayers or ask for the Kaddish, a specific Jewish prayer, to be said for departed loved ones. Prayers that are sent in are placed into the cracks of the walls and are called kvitelach. There might be a small charge for this service, depending on the person or organization that is providing the service. When the small pieces of papers become too numerous — more than 1 million are placed each year — they are removed and buried.

The Wailing Wall can be visited at any time of the day. Visitors typically are thoroughly searched for security purposes. Women of any religion, out of respect for Judaic law, should wear modest clothing. There are separate entrances for men and women, although they can regroup at the Wall.

Structure

The main section of the wall, where people go to pray, is about 187 feet (57 m) long and is made of meleke limestone. Most of the stones weigh 4,000 pounds (1,814.4 kg) or more, and one enormous stone, called the Western Stone, weighs more than 1.1 million pounds (more than 500,000 kg). There are 28 stone layers above the ground and 17 underground. An underground tunnel runs along the length of the wall.

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anon359023
Post 80

Thank you for your site. I plan on going to the wall in the spring and appreciated the information.

anon345958
Post 78

It is the wall to be shared by all people. Anyhow, all of us are God own creation. It is fair the Jews are be in charge of this wall.

anon322225
Post 76

This website is really cool. It helped me a ton with my research paper, but wow! I was reading these posts by people from so many different religions (I personally am a Christian Baptist), but I hate it when people say we're "forcing" our faith on people. I mean yes, are beliefs may be different, but can't we all get along, people?

anon310636
Post 73

Thank you for everything. Our future is looking brighter.

anon304128
Post 72

I have absolutely no interest in a religion given the way you all behave. The funny thing is, if there is a judgement day, I think it's going to be the blasphemous me that gets into heaven. I behave better and with less judgement then any religious person I have met. You're all a little nuts. Get on with it and love people!

anon302676
Post 71

@anon85678 (POST #47): You are a devout Christian and I respect that. But I just wanted to tell you that Jesus Christ was never crucified; all that happened was God (Allah)took Jesus up into heaven. Jesus is alive to this day, living in heaven, and he shall return to us (40 years before the Day of Judgement) and spread the message of Islam for all.

anon300158
Post 70

Why must there be so many people fighting over who's right and who's wrong? God is in our hearts and if you listen, he will tell you what to do.

It doesn't matter who you get together with. Everyone is going to believe differently, but I am sure under all beliefs it says to love one another. So do that and ask your god for understanding and pray.

anon260206
Post 67

@Anon29403: In that case say thank you.

anon229342
Post 65

It's actually just a wall, though isn't it just like any other wall. It may be quite old, but it's seriously just a wall.

anon197671
Post 63

The actual WW story is that Jews wanted to have an entry to Muslims Mosque (Alaqsa). So they asked Othmani empire to allow them to put a desk near "Alburaq" wall-where P. Muhammad tightened his horse. Then they put more desks and started to read their books. Then they made that place a wailing wall which never happened in the history before. We should not lie about history.

anon175307
Post 61

Someone posted earlier that the Western Wall (same as Wailing Wall, just preferred by much of the modern Jewish community) is not really part of the Temple [anon88378]. I want to clear up the misconceptions he or she put out there in this claim.

The Antonia Fortress is actually on the northern side of the Temple and therefore would not even be close to the current Western Wall section that is uncovered. Herod upgraded the temple to appease the Jews, that's why we see his workmanship on the architecture (50 ton cornerstones, with 2.5 inch inlaid border around each block fitting perfectly with no mortar). For further proof, underground they have uncovered lengths of the wall spanning 300-plus yards (much larger than the Antonia Fortress) that continue from the same place the current Western Wall is uncovered.

My name is Joshua and I have been to Israel and seen these things. I am a Christian and I hope that while we wait for the Lord to return we can live in peace with people from every land so that our reputation as Christians and our attitude of accepting the person (not just accepting everything they believe, but who they are) will win them over for Christ. He is our hope that will not disappoint because he has taken on every sin, paid the price for our punishment by dying on the cross, and he defeated death in his resurrection.

This is my hope, that I can share in this new life with Christ one day instead of facing the punishment for my guilt when I die.

Suzie Dsouza
Post 55

The wailing wall is an sacred place for the Jews. Whenever you plan to visit here, be prepared for the checking process such as bags, pockets. Try to be dressed up in full clothes, as this shows respect towards the religion. Avoid taking snaps and remain silent.

anon141202
Post 54

everyone needs to relax. enough said.

anon139152
Post 53

I for one, am sick of the "CE" and "BCE" designations. It's AD (anno domini) and BC (before Christ). get used to it, and deal with it! Stop all this politically correct crapola.

anon126273
Post 51

we had a wonderful experience at the Holy Land and one of them is the Wailing Wall. I thought that it was a wall with tears. Really wonderful to see people praying with so much faith.

anon119259
Post 50

I visited the wailing wall and am happy to see many jews and the visitors praying. I thought to be the crying wall but it must be the holy place for the jews like christians going to the churches to pray. Great experience.

anon88378
Post 48

There is absolute proof that the present site of the Jewish "Wailing Wall" in Jerusalem is not any part of the Temple that existed in the time of Herod and Jesus. In fact, that particular location that the Jewish authorities have accepted represents the Western Wall of an early Roman fortress (finally built and enlarged by Herod the Great). King Herod called it Fort Antonia, after the famous Mark Anthony who lived at the end of the first century before Christ.

It was formerly called the Baris in the proceeding hundred years and it finally became known as the Praetorium in the New Testament period (the central military edifice in Jerusalem where the commanding general of a Legion of troops had his headquarters). This rectangular type of building clearly resembles most permanent military camps that the Romans constructed throughout the Empire to house their Legions.

Indeed, when the Bordeaux Pilgrim visited Jerusalem in 333 C.E., he looked east from an area in front of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre (then in its final stages of being built) and said he saw this Praetorium directly eastward with its walls (he mentioned "walls" in the plural – meaning the southern and western walls) firmly entrenched in the bottom of the Tyropoeon Valley.

This central valley of Jerusalem (the Valley of the Cheesemakers) separated the eastern mountain ridge of the city (the original Mount Zion of the Bible) from the larger and more extensive western ridge.

What the Bordeaux Pilgrim provided in his writing is a perfect description of what we call today the Haram esh-Sharif. It is the remains of Fort Antonia. This Herodian structure housed the Tenth Legion left by Titus after the Roman/Jewish War of 66 to 73 C.E. The Tenth Legion continued its presence within its walls for over 200 years — until the Legion left for Eilat on the Red Sea in 289 C.E.

The Haram esh-Sharif (Fort Antonia) is the only remaining part of the Jerusalem that existed in the period of Herod and Jesus. And the present Jewish authorities have mistakenly accepted its Western Wall as being the wall of Herod’s Temple. They are wrong! It is actually the Western Wall of Fort Antonia.

But how did the present "Wailing Wall" get erroneously selected by the Jewish authorities as a holy place for the Jews? As I have abundantly shown in my new book "The Temples that Jerusalem Forgot," the Jewish authorities in and around Jerusalem from 70 C.E. until 1077 C.E. (for over a thousand years) only showed their religious interest for the location of the Temple at the area positioned over and around the Gihon Spring. This was at least 1000 feet south of what later became known as the Dome of the Rock. This is the exact area that the Genizah documents from Egypt show the Jewish authorities wished to live (to be near their Temple) in the time of Omar, the Second Caliph (638 C.E.).

The Jewish records show (mentioned in my book and supplemental articles) that it is without doubt the southeastern ridge of Jerusalem that contained the Temples of Solomon, Zerubbabel and that of Herod.

However, with the period of the Crusades, things begin to change. After a period of 50 years (from 1099 to 1154 C.E.) during which no Jewish person was allowed into the City of Jerusalem, we then have records that a few Jews began to return to Jerusalem.

It was only at this time (around 1054 C.E.) that some Jewish people started to imagine that the Christian and Muslim identification of the Dome of the Rock for the site of the former Temples might have relevance. This was first mentioned by Benjamin of Tudela. It was this Jewish traveler in about 1169 C.E., who first suggested that the region of the Dome of the Rock should be considered the site of the former Temples. This was a great error, but within a hundred years after Benjamin all Jews in the world came to believe it.

So, a new area for the site of the Temple was selected by the Jews in the time of Benjamin of Tudela.

At any rate, there is an abundance of historical and biblical evidences that the original Temples of God were positioned over and around the Gihon Spring in the southeastern part of Jerusalem. The evidence is so strong that one wonders how such an obvious fact could be so hidden from the attention of the world for so long?

Perhaps we all ought to read the whole of Isaiah 29 once again. The answer why the site of the Temples has been hidden is no doubt found in that chapter 29 of Isaiah.

In conclusion, the acceptance of the present "Wailing Wall" by the Jewish authorities as a wall of Herod’s Temple was inspired by false visions and dreams and so-called miraculous events that turned a former Christian holy site into the prime Jewish spot for divine veneration. That spot was not discovered by using historical and biblical facts.

The present "Wailing Wall" is a modern invention (devised about 350 years ago) and Jewish scholars know this to be a certain fact. That "Wailing Wall" is actually the Western Wall of Fort Antonia. The true Temple was located over the Gihon Spring on the southeast ridge of Jerusalem. There can be no doubt of this fact. It is time for all people to abandon these false religious sites.

anon85678
Post 47

Jesus Christ is the Messiah! He was tortured and crucified on the cross of Calvary for our sins, and rose on the third day so we can have eternal life.

anon83821
Post 45

In the name of god the most merciful and the most compassionate, say there is only one god, the eternal the absolute, he begetteth not, nor is he begotten, and there is none like him. the holy quran, ps god or allah is the creator of the heavens and the earth. we are all the children of adam and eve. learn to live in peace, mankind!

anon82441
Post 44

Why are Christians such supremacists? Some are so arrogant. You don't own God, you don't own the Western Wall, you don't own the Earth. Calm down and be humble, as you have been instructed to do.

anon82022
Post 43

yes you have spoken the truth, Jesus the true and living God. He said: I am the way, the truth and the life. No man can come to the father any other way. Jesus said if you try to come any other way you are the same as a thief robber, and those are the words of the Messiah.

We do not serve the same God as Islam, Ask any honest muslim and they will gladly tell you that God jehovah and their God are not the same. This is not said with an evil heart of prejudice but with love that you might come to the true light. Yeshua.

serious
Post 42

The God of Christianity is the living God, the God of 'salvation' and eternal life.

serious
Post 41

Thank you for that most descriptive definition,

just what I was looking for in my Theological studies on this particular subject.

amypollick
Post 40

@Anon79956: This may surprise you. I'm a Christian and I will freely admit that horrible things have been done in the name of religion -- Christianity and others. There is no dispute over that issue. However, I also believe those who have committed such atrocities in the name of God, are receiving their just punishment --and it isn't a pretty one. Using religion as an excuse to push a personal agenda is *never* right.

Having said that, the greatest atrocities in recent memory were not related to religion in any way. The three men responsible for some of the most horrific acts of man in history --Hitler, Stalin, Mao -- were not religious men. Indeed, they persecuted people because they were religious.

To be blunt, declaring that humankind could live in peace if no one was religious is a cop-out. Humans are nasty creatures and we would fight and war with or without religion. Deny religion if you want to, but don't use the age-old excuse of "if no one was religious, we could all get along." That's garbage. Money would still exist and I assure you that's enough to start as many wars as you please.

So, what would happen if no one had ever done anything in the name of God? Well, sometime in the 1940s a struggling actor made a vow to God that he would build a shrine to a saint he believed helped him. Today, St. Jude's Children's Research Hospital is one of the most advanced hospitals in the world That hospital is at the forefront of research into curing pediatric cancer. When this hospital was built in 1960, the death rate from Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia was 96 percent. Now, the death rate is six percent.

What if Danny Thomas had not been a Christian and made a vow? Would this hospital have been built anyway? Would the research have been done in other areas? Possibly, but hardly likely.

Most homeless shelters and soup kitchens have been opened under the auspices of one faith or another. Charity to the poor and disabled is commanded in most major religions, and organizations that help these groups are very often organized under a religious group.

What of the art, literature and music inspired by religion? Without it, there would be no Sistine Chapel, no "David," no "Messiah" by Handel, none of the great art from the Muslim and Hindu faiths. The architecture that built Notre Dame would have not had the spark of inspiration without religion, nor the mosques of the Middle East. Who would have built St. Basil's--that iconic symbol of Moscow? No one.

Religion certainly is not without its problems, but that's because humans practice it--those aforementioned nasty creatures. It only renders the humans themselves imperfect, not their faith. However, what a dull, colorless world we would be living in were it not for the glorious inspiration of faith and spirituality, worked out in imagination. Thanks, but I'll take the problems of religion to experience the benefits.

anon80132
Post 39

Thanks for such a great history.

I believe the history should teach us the past so that we may prepare for the future. The past is past and the future is coming.

All those who were in past, I believe they are a show of good things to come. Jesus is the reality.

I believe in God who created the universes, and loved us so much that, he took the form of man.

My God's name is Jesus. (the one born of Mary, Jesus of Nazareth).

anon79956
Post 38

all this talk about different religions' gods! grow up, people! there is no god so stop ranting on about whose is better, because no one upstairs is listening. As soon as you learn that lesson then maybe as a race and not a religion we might learn to live in peace.

anon78984
Post 37

In answer to #15 and #16 about the stones. The Western Wall is not one of the structures referred to by Jesus. The Western wall or Wailing Wall, known as the Kotel by the Jews, is all part of a massive retaining wall built during the time of Herod when he had made great alterations to the Temple Mount area. Peace to you in Jesus Name.

anon73751
Post 36

Truth is in your actions and in your heart. So please, stop trying to prove who’s right and wrong. Have respect and love for each other and then we all win.

anon73725
Post 35

Good article. I researched "wailing wall", just to find out what made this site so sacred to jews. You answered my questions! You've apparently sparked quite a religious debate as well. Christians, Jews, Jehovah's Witnesses, and Muslims are having a battle royal down here. It's rather entertaining reading the "I'm right, no, *I'm* right" comments.

anon73588
Post 34

God intended for everything that happened to happen. the truth lies in what Jesus teaches us, not in what we think!

anon63439
Post 31

Thanks for the background info. In my English class we're starting a section on Jewish culture. This is really going to help.

And after reading all these comments, I can't help to feel a bit ashamed. I'm not Jewish, but I do have some idea of what happened to the Jews in their history. A lot has happened. Segregation, genocide, much of which we don't experience. And here comes a bunch of people, close-minded, reading this, and instead of learning, they bash it because they don't understand. This article was written to inform. Not to spur your opinions on whatever affiliation you are.

anon62896
Post 30

Thanks. needed this for my homework.

anon61537
Post 27

nice job! this helped me with homework. thanks!

anon60963
Post 26

thank you very much you helped me with my homework a lot. i did not copy and paste. i said it in my own words. thank you. :)

anon60923
Post 25

Only apologists for muslims and other Jew haters would consistently use the phrase "wailing wall" after explaining it's a derogatory / non jewish name. How about we Jews call the mosque the fake place where mohamed rolled in his horses excrement?

Jerusalem is never mentioned once in the Koran. Islam should take their mosque off the Temple Mount and go back to Koranustan.

anon53084
Post 24

Jesus said, "...I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through Me." John 14:6 This passage eliminates all other paths that come by way of other men (i.e. Muhammad, Buddha, even False Jesus). There is one Lord and one faith and one baptism(for remission of sins) that all of mankind must render obedience to in order to become a Christian.

Most important for us all, there is one doctrine that we must all follow. Paul shows that to change that doctrine is to preach a another Jesus in 2 Corinthians 11:6 and again in Gal.1:6-9, he calls false teaching a different gospel.

John adds to it by says, "If anyone comes to you and does not bring this doctrine..." he limits it to a particular teaching. We can see that the false teachers that were predicted by Peter(2 Peter 2) have been very effective for the last 2,000 years.

That even the Muslim faith believes it has a claim to God (YHWH, Jehovah, Jesus), but the book says that Ishmael was born to a slave woman and Isaac to a free woman(Gal.4:22-28) Therefore, Isaac is the son of the promise of salvation of whom Jesus the Christ descends from. If one is a muslim and claims to believe the Bible, then that is in the Bible.

Only in Jesus can we make peace on earth and we do that by becoming Christians. Then we become the spiritual children of God like Jesus and not the children of the flesh, killing each other with bullets and bombs.

anon47099
Post 22

i think you are wrong anos42043. we are not muslims and we don't believe in three gods. get your information straight.

anon42995
Post 19

People believe what they are told to believe. Most people haven't got the capacity to recognize truth, even if it's banging them on the head. They can't! they are conditioned to experience migraines when they try to process-thought, to keep you from ever seeing truth. People's problem is that they believe "the truth is out there", when the truth is inside, asleep, hiding from pretend-love, lost behind a fear, in a numb mindless being of a hurt child.

Humans' goals today are identical to the goals of Neanderthals a hundred thousand years ago. Nothing has changed. No one can see the truth, because they don't have any inside. When the truth is in their faces, they can't see it through their walls of lies and fears, so they worship the walls.

One must have love inside to see truth because truth is powerful, and in the wrong hands extremely dangerous. Jerks will never see the truth. They will never "get though the fire" They will burn in the fire. Hell's fires are Heaven's shield against jerks. Hell's power equals, and surpasses, that of humanity's collective evil. This human race will die and rot, never knowing there is more to life than just life on planet earth.

You can't steal love, and use it for evil. You can't steal truth. You can't see truth, without being loved. Love cannot exist where evil lives. Without love, you are "in-hell." Why do you pray in hell?

anon42043
Post 18

my Muslim brother, a Jehovah Witness is not a Christian. they worship three gods. I worship one God. the Father, Son and Holy Spirit are One God not three as the Jehovah Witness do.

anon41517
Post 17

Thank you for posting this article. I never knew there were tunnels at the wall. Anon31014, did you know this saying,"Behold,I am the one True God, thou shalt have No Other gods before me." In other words Anon38232 is correct in saying there is One God, but many names.

anon40895
Post 16

I will comment on the question why does it say in Matthew 24:2, "And Jesus said unto them, See ye not all these things? verily I say unto you, There shall not be left here one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down."

To answer this question, 'Can the statement that not one stone shall be left upon another and that all should be thrown down' be reconciled with the fact that the wailing wall seems to have some of the stones standing? I know that the prophecy was fulfilled generally but it would seem it was not fulfilled completely.

The fact is, the prophecy has yet to be fulfilled meaning the Temple *must* be rebuilt and then it will be destroyed never to be rebuilt again. so the temple in Jerusalem will be rebuilt!

anon40291
Post 15

In Matthew 24 the Lord made a prediction:

Mt 24:1 And Jesus went out, and departed from the temple: and his disciples came to him for to shew him the buildings of the temple.

Mt 24:2 And Jesus said unto them, See ye not all these things? verily I say unto you, There shall not be left here one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down.

Can the statement that not one stone shall be left upon another and that all should be thrown down be reconciled with the fact that the wailing wall seems to have some of the stones standing? I know that the prophecy was fulfilled generally but it would seem it was not fulfilled completely. Anyone want to comment?

anon39518
Post 14

As a Christian I agree that Islam does not worship the same God as Jews or Christians. True Christians believe in the Trinity of God, 3 persons in the One God--The Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

Jesus Christ who is the Son, the second person of the Godhead, came to earth to redeem mankind from sin and death by paying the penalty for us on the cross.

anon38232
Post 13

In response to anon31014 I tell you that by saying their god and my god you're in fact saying there is more than one god. I am muslim and believe in one god but that different peoples have names and ideas about him. To quote you "an eye for an eye" is on the bible (which I have read) My wife is an ex Jehovah's Witness and as soon as she saw the clarity and truth that lies in Islam she soon forgot about an organisation that twists god's word and uses the bible to control to the point you're afraid of even hearing about other religions. I ask you why? as I've been in a Kingdom hall and a catholic church and I am still Muslim. the metaphor would be a wife whose husband locks her up and tells her not to speak to anyone (because he is so petty and small minded she'll more than likely go elsewhere)

Islam teaches us to respect all religion (even none abrahamic) as most worshippers intend in their heart to worship god but circumstances don't let everyone believe the same thing.

God is above us all and is not small minded as the labels created by man will be removed and all mankind will be judged fairly.

When you meet your creator and he asks why you felt there was more than one god what will you answer?

It seems you have an inferiority complex and you use God and religion to prove you are something.

There is only one God -- remember that my Christian brother.

anon37626
Post 12

There is only one god. Who reigns in heaven. He is coming back very soon for his bride which is the church.

anon34461
Post 10

for the misconception on Islam's god is a vengeful and punishing god, it is untrue, when starting anything Muslims say "i start with the name of god, *the most merciful*" so there are many different attributes of commands of god, which could be quoted in different context.

anon34361
Post 9

Both Elohim (blessed be He!), in Hebrew, and Allah, in Arabic, are of the same Semitic construction (vowel-L-H, with M merely being plural). Anyone who says differently is uneducated in these matters. Check the Lexicons and References.

anon33599
Post 8

The statement that Islam worships the same One *God* as the Jews is completely untrue. The Jews worship The Great *I am the God of Abraham.* Isaac & Jacob Islam worships allah a pagan god who goes right to the time of Nimrod & was even then represented by the symbol of the new moon the very name Nimrod means "let us revolt" this man's works included the building of the tower of babel.

anon31014
Post 7

I take exception to your statement that "Islam worships the same One God as the Jew". Both Jews and Muslims would take exception to this. Allah and Jehovah God are not the same God. The Muslims worship a god of retribution and an eye for an eye; a god of vengeance and punishment.

Jehova God is a redemptive God. A God of forgiveness and mercy.

Please don't proliferate a mistaken notion that all Gods are the same. It is a dangerous belief and a watered down belief that has caught on in some circles.

By the way, I am a christian who has studied this topic. There is enough misunderstanding about this.

anon29403
Post 6

I am teaching a sixth grade world history class, and this article really helped my Catholic students understand the importance of the Western Wall to our Jewish brothers and sisters.

anon25389
Post 3

this really helped with my essay.

anon21500
Post 2

I think that this website is good and it helped me a lot with my research on the Wailing Wall subject.

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